Review of Novel Sula


The Sula novel talks about a lasting prejudice and racism existing in between the hills and the valley areas of medallion and along the racial bases indicates the lifestyle and behaviours depicted by various characters for example Nel who expresses insecurity because of her mother’s blood with white complexion. Racial segregation stresses the black people of the bottom who are oppressed and are denied employment importunities by the whites. As Sula returns from college in Memphis, extreme kind of nature returns as a superstition symbol whereby she was welcomed by plague of robins which only happened in the bottom where it was only inhabited by only blacks. It is only Eva who believed it was a sigh of Sula returning but other people believed that the robins symbolize that something was coming.

Sula is not only metaphysically black, not melanin and tribe but she is the new world black woman who goes beyond extracting choice far from choice less , inventively responding  to invent new things in non-professional way. Also Sula is very disruptive, daring, and modern –out, imaginative, non-policing and uncontainable. Toni Morrison’s observation on the community dominated by black women in both private and public life .Morrison’s main point in protagonist answers the race and gender questions. Since Sula is raised for ten year outside her own community other women of her community felt her as superior after her return Sula’s status in the community as a woman takes a very small part of she perceives herself and also she is perceived by others. She is too much mysterious to be a true representative of both white and the black group.

Despite of all the limitation which is imposed by the entire community and also her family, Sula does not put any limits upon herself. Despite the ultimate blackness that isolates her from her own community that utterly enact antithetical beauty. When she returns after ten years from college she refuses to maintain the family in the same manner her mother and grandmother used to maintain before her. Her inmate interaction also with men is limited consciously. In this noel, women oppression is particularly depicted and delivers an unspoken evil that has no comprehensive narration. Women in medallion have already accepted the transgression of poverty, pain and in spite of all this they are experiencing drought and consequent plagues. They have already accepted that it is Gods uncontrollable power that proceeds over every aspect that affects their community life.

Every main female character in Sula novel commits a blameworthy, but when they are placed within the context that the author depicts the acts become redemptive since the community is plagued with poverty, crime, racism and lacking mobility at the same time. Another agonizing situation is when Eva, Sula’s grandmother her son to death in order to relieve him from his suffering he had slipped in cocaine addiction. Morrison also talks about the conceit that the evil wins when community people fail to act on some crucial issues that are haunting them. This is clearly shown when Hanna Sula’s mother burn at their backyard to death. The fact that Sula was too young to help her mother, this incident is seen interpreting Sula’s future life in relation to the world that appears to control her.

Prior to Sula’s mother death, Sula returns to her home town medallion only to find a plague of robins on her heels. These robins descend on her town and blacken the skies. It is very conspicuous that medallion residents are deep down to the mercies of forces which are completely out of their own control. The kind of shame people feels towards Sula and the actions she was doing gives medallion residents motivation on how to behave differently since shame was revealed to be essential part of the community. The entire community defined themselves against Sula as symbol of shame .finally when Sula dies and the community members no longer have shame and embodiment the start ignoring their maternal and familial duties that they were eager to achieve when Sula was still alive. Helene also feels a lot of shame since she was born to a prostitute where she defines herself against her mother’s example and becomes very judgemental and extremely conservative unlike her mother.

Sula is also depicted in the novel as religion protagonist who don’t observe or respect the church and is seen as the devil in the entire community. Religion has become indicator of social acceptability. There are characters who are devoted to god’s work and they believe that their problems will be solved through prayers. Example is Helene who is taught good morals by her grandmother, also Nel become involved in the church’s work in her late adulthood which finally directs her to the peace nursing home where Sula’s grandmother lives. “How do you know?”Sula said. About who was good?  I mean maybe it not meant to be you but maybe it was me”. (Morrison, 1973, p. 146)

She was also concerned in maintaining her inmate friendship with Nel not knowing that she and Nel was not the same thing. Sula caused a very major pain to her friend when she fell in love with her husband Jude. Sula was ill prepared by possessing one she was so close to husband leaving her in deep pain. Also Morrison tells us the story of the friendships which existed between the two girls teen Sula peace and Nel Wright. This relationship develops bizarre background which enmeshed their family ties and knit closely the black community.

Sula decides not to take the part which her friend Nel takes.nel takes the part in which women in the normal society should take of getting married get children and other roles of a black woman in any closed community. Instead, Sula decides to leave her own community and goes to college whereby she is seen embracing a very different life from her own after return back from the college. After her return she faces a very great hatred from the community members since she chooses to embrace western life rather than her own. One could just justify that Sula possesses opposite sex characteristics and shunned because of going out to college far away from home.

Besides being faced with the world full of racisms Sula defends herself by developing her own life. She also refuses to settle for the normal community woman tradition marriage, child upbringing and labour. The women of the bottom also hated Sula because of living in critique of their own life. She is even described by the author as broken mirror pieces and fragments that we have to see them as independent and put together ourselves. Sula sexual relationship with Jude Nel husband caused a big void and a gap in the women relationship that allowed us to examine what is capable of happening to close friends.

Several years after Sula death, her friend Nel realizes that she had wasted many opportunities on discovering her one’s self and happiness. Toni Morrison goes beyond telling us of Sula asking Nel if she could allow her to have sex with her husband since they were very good friends indeed. This shows us how intimate friendship i the novel had a very bad consequence in some characters marriage life. Despite of Nel hatred toward Sula she is still committed to her childhood friend.

In any relationship disagreement can occur at every point of life. For Sula and her friend Nel their true friendship gives us a clear indication of the beauty and the strength that they find in each personality. As young girls Sula and Nel set up their own rules that defined their dimension of their togetherness friendship that they are just out of what their community perceived their behaviour to be acceptable.


Toni Morrison describes matriarchal homes where girls and women are the most dominant figure who even goes beyond emasculating their own husbands. Morrison’s wide vision extends far beyond individual context that explores self-satisfactory history and relationship. Depicting freedom  ,curiosity, adventure, danger and passion Sula cared less from others and also giving less about what other people were saying .she is spontaneous and not able to moderate her tempers which suddenly impact that may have consequences for her community .
















Work cited

Morrison, Toni. Sula. New York: Vintage International, 1973. Internet resource.

Top of Form

Morrison, Toni. Sula. , 1973. Internet resource.

Lippmann, Babette, and Toni Morrison. Good and Evil in Toni Morrison’s Sula. , 1973. Print.
































































Existentialism is an example of a philosophical work that was established by philosophers in the 19th and the 20th century. Thus, in the definition of existentialism, they shared the opinion that the rational thinking that we often encounter, usually begins with the human subject and does not start with the thinking subject. It should also be noted that the primary value of having existentialism is the aspect of facilitating and promoting authenticity. Consequently, existentialism has the possibility of emphasizing the human beings existence, choice as well as the freedom nature of people. Researchers and philosophers who try to explain existentialism believe on the idea that people are always trying to define and have a meaning in their lives. In this case, they identify that despite the fact that the universe is highly irrational, human beings are ever attempting to create a rational decision while having to live in the difficult world. Thus, there is an explanation that focuses on the human existence, as well as upholding the feeling that indeed, no purpose exists at the core of life. An interesting fact shifts to the religious aspect as existentialism brings the belief that there is no God. Furthermore, it also erases the thoughts of a transcendent force ever existing. In the end, embracing existence is the only way that can be applied to have a counter on the nothingness and suggestion that there is no God.

Existentialism holds that human beings are free individuals, and they have to account for their personal responsibility (Robert, 2005). However, while taking the personal responsibility, they have to brace for anguish which often occurs in the process. Action, the decision as well as freedom are the essential tools in promoting Existentialism. Thus, by individuals exercising their liberty and choice, they will be able to rise above the typical absurd condition of the humanity which is characterized by the inevitable death and suffering to the individuals.

A brief historical summary of the term Existentialism is that the origin of the word is traced back to the 19th century with credit being given to two philosophers that are Soren, Kierkegaard, and Fredrich Nietzsche. However, despite directing the credit to these authors, neither of them was able to use the term in their works. The 1940s and the 1950s saw French existentialists writing the scholarly works and fictional materials whose aim was to improve and popularize the existentialist themes. These topics did include the dread that human beings dreaded, boredom, freedom, alienation, commitment as well as nothingness (Thomas, 2009). The authors who made these possible were Jean-Paul Sartre, Simon de Beauvoir and Albert Camus.

Critics have also been influential and able to develop their ideas and opinions regarding the term Existentialism. Christians are one of the members who complain that the concept of Existentialism does portray the human nature in a negative and a bad state. They identify that the picture that existentialism brings is that it overlooks the aspect of dignity and grace that is usually profound with the image of God. Existentialism suggests that there is no God. Furthermore, Christian critics claim that there is a deficiency as Existentialism does not account for the moral dimensions that are usually in the human life and thus they also do not explain the basis theory that is always bound by the commands of God. Thus, according to Christians, the explanation that Existentialism brings in that there is no God creates damages in the moral sector.

Personal Experience

In life, there have been challenges that I have been able to encounter that brought the reflection of the overall life. Growing up, I was never privileged to have a chance to enjoy and have my biological parents for long. The uncertainties that happened in life did include that they were involved in a road accident while I was still at a tender age of eight years. The road accident claimed their life, and here death had robbed me of my parents. That is when life did take a different turn. My uncle who was a brother to my father took me in and became my foster parent. Despite having a shelter, food and clothing access, life was completely different. I was subjected to hard work and torture while residing with my uncle. I would do the house chores and always slept late after everyone had slept. Furthermore, I was expected to rise the first person and prepare breakfast meals for everybody in the family. When I once asked my uncle why he was doing this to me, he quickly replied that there is nothing that is given for free and that everybody has to work hard to gain the items that he wanted. He further said that if I was not comfortable, i should call on God and see if he can help me. The constant torture set back my studies and health as they ended up deteriorating and worsening. In my mind, I had thoughts of escaping, but I had no place to go even if I had to get away.

The existentialist crisis emerged, and I questioned the purpose of life that I was living at that time. There was no freedom and no choice as I was reduced to a kind of a slave.

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Robert, C. (2005). Existentialism. Oxford University Press

Thomas, F. (2009). Existentialism. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc

Pepsin: The Effect of pH on Enzyme Activity

Pepsin is a gastric enzyme which is secreted by the stomach wall and aids in protein digestion. It is a protease produced when pepsinogen is secreted by the gastric glands and due to the highly acidic nature of the stomach, converted to pepsin. It changes proteins into peptides and amino acides therefore beginning protein digestion. For pepsin to be effective, it requires an acidic enviroment such as the one provided in the stomach by hydrochloric acid.

There are many factors affecting enzyme activity. These include temperature,pH, concentration and enzyme inhibitors. The following experiment will investigate the effect of pH on Pepsin.


Hard-boiled egg white

6 Test tubes


1% Pepsin

1% Pepsin in 0.4 Hcl

0.4 Hcl

1% Pepsin in 0.5% sodium bicarbonate

Sodium Bicarbonate (0.5%)

Distilled water


  1. Label the test tubes appropriately from 1 to 6
  2. Put a third of each solution as listed above in the corresponding test tube.
  3. Cut the egg white into approximately 2 millimeter sized cubes and drop one in each test tube.
  4. Incubate at room temperature for at least 12 hours.
  5. Repeat the experiment but this time incubate at thirty degrees Celsius.
  6. Repeat a second time but this time use, extremely thinner strips of egg white at room temperature conditions.


Once the 12 hours expire, little egg white in tube 2 that contained 1% pepsin in 0.4% HCl remains while the rest remain unchanged. Due to the appropriate acidic conditions, pepsin is able to breakdown the egg white. If the 12 hour period is extended, the egg white in tube 4 is observed to be smaller (Miller, 1992, pp. 153-161). When incubated at thirty degrees Celsius as well as when very thin egg white pieces are used, the egg white disappears very first in tube 2. Concisely, an increase in temperature to optimum leads to an increase in the rate of enzyme activity. Similarly an increase in substrate concentration also increases the rate of enzyme action.


















Miller, S. B. (1992). Tested studies for laboratory teaching: Proceedings of the 6th             Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) (Vol.           6). Place of publication not identified: The Association.

Philosophy Paper


1) Human nature: According to me, the theory of utilitarianism which emphasized on reasoning about feelings of pleasure and pain is more accurate or useful in characterizing human nature more than the theory of Kant which emphasized on human rationality alone. It is more accurate because it explains things that are seen clearly and are basic in determining the nature of humans because with no pain there is a pleasure and with no pleasure there is a pain. When there is no pain, there is happiness, and when there is no pleasure, there is unhappiness.

Happiness is the only thing with inherent value, and it is determined by pain and pleasure, so it is not possible to remove pleasure and pain when discussing value. Because value is measured by happiness which is measured by the level of pain or pleasure hence, all these are connected and when one is eliminated the whole thing becomes impossible to explain and show something real.

2) Deity:  It is helpful to a religion to understand as Kant did; that human minds are not capable of knowing God and our knowledge have limits because it is true and the sooner one accepts thing, the more important it is for him to look at what he can understand about God and not what he cannot because he will never understand. Kant’s view does not silence theologians it just moves the conversation to another level because even if we cannot understand God, we are obliged to teach and learn the knowledge we are capable of understanding about God.

3) Ethics: I find myself using the theory of Bentham & Mills of utilitarianism under various circumstances, for instance, I work hard every day to maintain the level of pleasure high and to keep it last long so as to continue being happy because when pleasure reduces there is pain which is unhappiness something everyone does not want. The other weaknesses which I noted on the theories are that the theories cannot answer each question asked about what it proves.

4) Kant killed metaphysics by changing it to the critique of pure reasoning. This killed metaphysics because no one concentrated on it and they had something new.

I agree that what is real is forever unknowable, and it will always be tainted by human categories, frameworks and ways of looking at reality. This is because no one understands what is real, and for them to study what is real they have to come up with theories which will be tested and if it gives good feedbacks they research more on it. When they do not find the answer, they criticize what is real instead of leaving the methods they used to search for it and use other methods without giving up. What is real will always be tainted because when people do not find it, and they know they are not capable of finding it they term it as a bad thing instead of accepting the limitations they have towards acquiring knowledge.






Review of the Kantianism paper


This paper discusses four main theories; the Aristotelian virtue theory, natural law theory, Kantianism theory and the utilitarianism theory. All the four theories are based on the basic rules of living as human beings. The Aristotelian virtue theory states that as long as someone lives, he/she is obliged to live their life well. It explains that everyone is supposed a virtues life. However, this law is limited in that virtues acts vary from one place to another. The natural law is looked at in three precepts: anything good is that which preserves life while which does not is considered bad, procreating and raising children and pursuing truth and knowledge and preserving and maintaining society. This law also occurs on a double effect principal. Nevertheless, it is complicated to apply the whole natural law compressively since different parts of the law favor different cases and occurrences.

This paper also looks at the Kantianism theory that argues ethics is acting out of sense of responsibility without engaging to any selfish desire but exercising what reason prescribes as the duty. This is a good theory since everyone has a level of reasoning that guides and leads us in doing what we ought to do. According to Kant, that which one will not allow everyone else to engage into is selfish and it should therefore not be done. Finally, the paper looks at the utilitarian theory that explains the acceptable doings in the society is that which has positive effects. Anyone acting according to this theory is supposed to aim at bringing out the best outcome. However, this theory is limited in that whatever that would be considered as a good outcome of an act by one group of people can also be considered wrong by another group of people.